Naming unsaturated fatty acids.

Fatty acid are hydrocarbon chains with carboxylic acid at the end. Unsaturated fatty acid contain one or more double bonds, usually in cis conformation. There are two methods of naming the unsaturated double bonds, delta and omega. Delta naming system: 1. Count carbons starting from the carboxylic end. The total number of carbons in the fatty acid is the first number in the name. 2. The second number represents the number of double bonds. For example 14:2 means there are 14 carbons total in the fatty acid and there are two double bonds. 3. After the delta sign, we put numbers signifying the location of the double bonds. Now putting it all together, lets look at a name and understand it. 18:2

Molecular Orbital Theory

In organic chemistry, students learn about molecular orbitals. Molecular orbitals are combinations of atomic orbitals that result in the ove

Which compound is saturated?

Which compound is saturated? (1) butane (2) ethene (3) heptene (4) pentyne Answer and explanation: In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is the one with all single bond. In the reference table, table Q, major compound types are listed and are divided into classes of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Alkenes are hydrocarbons that have a double bond, and their name ends in "ene." Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have a triple bond, and their name ends in "yne." Alkanes have only single bonds and their name ends in "ane." Saturated compounds are those with only single bonds, and therefore alkanes are saturated. If we take a look at the names in the answer choices we can quickly determine that ch

MCAT Scheduling and fees

MCAT scheduling is divided into three zones: gold, silver and bronze. Gold zone is 29 days prior to the exam and costs $315 to register, $95 to change the date or the test center and the student gets $155 back in case of cancellation. Silver zone is 15 days prior to the exam date and costs $315 to register, $155 to change the date or the test center and the student gets no refund in case of cancellation. Bronze zone is 8 days prior to the exam and costs $370 to register and there is no rescheduling option and no cancellation refund. 2019 test calendar is here: For more information about MCAT, or to speak to our amazing MCAT tutors in Brooklyn, NYC or online, please call 646-407-9078. #MCAT

Cellular respiration components

Cellular respiration is a number of reactions and processes that lead to the generation of energy in the form of ATP that cells can use. Cellular respiration consists of the following processes: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. In glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon sugar) is broken down to two pyruvate molecules via a series of ten enzymatically catalyzed steps. Glycolysis of one glucose molecule creates 2 pyruvate molecules as well as 2NADH molecules and 2 ATPs. The pyruvate molecules are further broken down in the citric acid cycle, which produces 1 GTP3, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 for one pyruvate. NADH and FADH2 produced in both cycles e

1,2 versus 1,4 addition in organic chemistry.

In organic chemistry, many students learn about 1,2 versus 1,4 addition in their second semester. This addition happens with conjugated dienes (double single double bond). When a conjugated diene is reacted with HX (where X is the halogen), under different temperatures, it produces different products. Under low temperature, the reaction is said to be under kinetic control. In the first step, the double bond attacks hydrogen, creating an allylic carbocation (resonance stabilized). Since the temperature is low, there is not enough time for the X to go around the molecule. Therefore, X attaches to the carbocation right away, and we call it 1,2 addition. Under thermodynamic control, which happen

The role of insulin in our body

Insulin is a very important hormone that helps regulate our blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. It is originally synthesized as preproinsulin, a precursor to the insulin. It then is chemically modified to become proinsulin, and finally, insulin. The secretion of insulin from the pancreatic cells is triggered by the presence of glucose. Thus, eating a meal , and releasing glucose triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas. Once it is released, insulin travels through the bloodstream and binds to the receptors on the target organs. The binding of insulin leads to a catalytic cascade that results in the translocation of glucose transporters to the cell surface, and t

Helpful tricks and tips for organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a difficult class that more pre-health students are required to take. While, it has no math, it involves a lot of logic and understanding. At Transformation Tutoring, organic chemistry is one of our favorite subjects to tutor. Here are some tips and tricks for studying organic chemistry well, and making learning easier. 1. Practice using various sources. The more different problems a student practices, the more equipped he/she will be in handling any organic chemistry question on the test. A student can do recitation problems, textbook problems, past exams and other sources for best results. 2. Count the carbons. Many students make the mistake of losing carbons in their