How to recognize carbocation rearrangements?

In organic chemistry, when students learn reactions oftentimes hydride and alkyl shifts happen that student might not recognize. Here are the ways to be aware of them: 1. Any reactions that go through a carbocation are capable of rearrangements such as SN1, E1, and alkene reactions with acids. 2. Rearrangements happen at the carbocation stage. 3. The shift happens if the neighboring carbon would make for a more stable, more substituted carbocation. For example if a secondary carbocation is located next to a carbon that is tertiary, rearrangement will take place. 4. If the hydrogen is present, do hydride shift. If there are only carbons, do an alkyl shift. 5. Often, the professor asks student

Kinetics and equilibrium on the regents

The rate of the reaction is affected by the following factors: 1. Concentration (higher concentration of reactant particles increases the rate of reaction since it leads to more collisions) 2. Surface area ( higher surface area, such as grinding something into powder, increases the rate of the reaction) 3. Temperature (higher temperature increases the rate of the reaction). 4. Catalyst (catalyst increases the rate of the reaction by lowering the activation energy). Catalysts can be reused over and over again. When the reaction releases energy, delta H is negative, and the reaction is said to be exothermic. Energy will be shown on the right side, together with the products. When the reaction