February 27, 2019

 Fatty acid are hydrocarbon chains with carboxylic acid at the end. Unsaturated fatty acid contain one or more double bonds, usually in cis conformation. There are two methods of naming the unsaturated double bonds, delta and omega. 

Delta naming system:

1. Count carbons starting from the carboxylic end. The total number of carbons in the fatty acid is the first number in the name.

2. The second number represents the...

February 25, 2019

In organic chemistry, students learn about molecular orbitals. Molecular orbitals are combinations of atomic orbitals that result in the overall orbitals for t

February 23, 2019

Which compound is saturated?

(1) butane

(2) ethene

(3) heptene

(4) pentyne

Answer and explanation:

In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is the one with all single bond. In the reference table, table Q, major compound types are listed and are divided into classes of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes. Alkenes are hydrocarbons that have a double bond, and their name ends in "ene." Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have a triple b...

February 22, 2019

MCAT scheduling is divided into three zones: gold, silver and bronze. Gold zone is 29 days prior to the exam and costs $315 to register, $95 to change the date or the test center and  the student gets $155 back in case of cancellation. Silver zone is 15 days prior to the exam date and costs $315 to register, $155 to change the date or the test center and  the student gets no refund in case of cancellation. Bronze zone i...

February 20, 2019

P.S. How are proteins made? DNA is used as a template to make RNA in a process called transcription. RNA is single stranded and has the base U instead of T. Once RNA is modified, it leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. In cytoplasm, mRNA together with tRNA and ribosomes does the process of translation, or creation of proteins. tRNA reads the codon (3letter sequence) on mRNA and bring the correct amino acid to th...

February 19, 2019

Cellular respiration is a number of  reactions and processes that lead to the generation of energy in the form of ATP that cells can use. Cellular respiration consists of the following processes: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. In glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon sugar) is broken down to two pyruvate molecules via a series of ten enzymatically catalyzed steps. Gly...

February 17, 2019

In organic chemistry, many students learn about 1,2 versus 1,4 addition in their second semester. This addition happens with conjugated dienes (double single double bond). When a conjugated diene is reacted with HX (where X is the halogen), under different temperatures, it produces different products. Under low temperature, the reaction is said to be under kinetic control. In the first step, the double bond attacks hydr...

February 11, 2019

Insulin is a very important hormone that helps regulate our blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. It is originally synthesized as preproinsulin, a precursor to the insulin. It then is chemically modified to become proinsulin, and finally, insulin. The secretion of insulin from the pancreatic cells is triggered by the presence of glucose. Thus, eating a meal , and releasing glucose triggers the release...

February 7, 2019

1. Watch out for units. First, a student must always include units when doing calculations to make sure that everything is being solved correctly. Secondly, even when the formula is forgotten, units will help the student to figure out what he/she must do. For example, if density is given in grams/L, and number of ml is given as well while the question asks for mass in kg, what do we do? Well, from looking at the units,...

February 4, 2019

Organic chemistry is a difficult class that more pre-health students are required to take. While, it has no math, it involves a lot of logic and understanding. At Transformation Tutoring, organic chemistry is one of our favorite subjects to tutor. Here are some tips and tricks for studying organic chemistry well, and making learning easier.

1. Practice using various sources. The more different problems a student practice...

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