December 3, 2019

Which of the following substrates would react most efficiently in a substitution reaction with sodium cyanide (NaCN)?

(A) 1-iodohexane
(B) 1-fluorohexane
(C) (R)-2-bromohexane
(D) chlorocyclohexane
(E) 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane

Answer: (A) 1-iodohexaneA


We first must figure out which reaction does the question ask about. The question mentions substitution reaction, thus either SN1 or SN2. We are also given NaCN...

October 9, 2019

Draw the structural formula for at least one bromoalkene with the molecular formula C5H9Br that shows:

(a) Neither E,Z isomerism nor chirality.

(b) E,Z isomerism but not chirality.

(c) Chirality but not E,Z isomerism.

(d) Both chirality and E,Z isomerism.

In order to do this questions we must know two things. A molecule that does not have a chiral center will not be chiral. A chiral center is a carbon that is attached to fou...

October 2, 2019

Which compounds contain chiral centers?

(a) 2-Chloropentane

(b) 3-Chloropentane

(c) 3-Chloro-1-pentene

(d) 1,2-Dichloropropane

A chiral center is a carbon that is attached to 4 different groups.

We should start by drawing out molecules, and adding the necessary number of hydrogens to each carbon. Remember a carbon wants to always have 4 bonds. Therefore, if we see a carbon with 2 bonds, we attach 2 more hydrogens and so f...

September 26, 2019

Organic chemistry is notorious for being one of the hardest subjects in college. Don't panic though. Here is a list of how to best study and ace your organic chemistry class.

1. Read the chapter, paying most attention to the in chapter problems. Some students even skip reading the chapter since problems practicing is most important for organic chemistry. You can try to do the in-chapter problems on your own and then chec...

September 18, 2019

When Can Carbocation Rearrangements Happen?

Carbocation Rearrangements can occur in reactions whose mechanism goes through carbocation (C+) intermediates. These reactions are SN1, E1 and the reaction of alkenes (c=c) with an acid.

How do I know if the carbocation rearrangement will happen during my mechanism?

If you have a carbocation and the neighboring carbon is more substituted, you need to do the rearrangement. Most of...

July 15, 2019

Students taking organic chemistry second semester, learn benzene reactions. Benzene is a cyclic ring consisting of six carbons and three double bonds. 

When a benzene has one or more substituents already on, these substituents determine where the next substituent will go.

The substituents can be divided into two categories: ortho/para and meta. 

Ortho is the location on the benzene ring right next to the substituent.

Para i...

July 12, 2019

Text: Maitland Jones, Organic Chemistry

Jones, Gingrich, and Fleming Study Guide/Solutions Manual for


DATE           DAY                                      CHAPTER


July 9, 2019

HNMR stands for hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. This technique allows us to figure out the structure of many molecules. It is especially useful in pharmaceutical industries for the research in drug discovery.

The number of signals that HNMR gives is equal to the number of different hydrogens. 

Two hydrogens are different when they are on carbons attached to different groups. 

Here is a set of tips that will allow you...

April 3, 2019

n the beginning of the procedure, the student puts a drop each of the control substances as well as experimental outcome. He/she then immerses the sample into the fluent, which over time, moves up the plate. The final location of each spot depends on the polarity of the substance. Since silica is polar, molecules that are more polar will stay at the bottom not moving as much,

April 2, 2019

Reactions of Grignard: Grignard reagent is a strong base. Thus it will attack any electrophile and can participate in a variety of reagents. Grignard reacts with water, alcohols, and acids getting protonated. Therefore, in order for grignard to attack a specific molecule we can not put water in the same step. We have to either number steps or put it on a separate arrow. Grignard is also known for attacking carbonyl comp...

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