There are three trends that can be observed: ionizations energy, atomic radius, and electronegativity. Let's start by defining each one.
Atomic radius is the measure of the size of an atom. Atomic radius increases as we go from the right to the left and from the top to the bottom of the periodic table. As we go down the group, the number of energy shells increases and therefore the radius increase. As we go from the left to the right of a period on the other hand, the number of electron shells stays the same while the number of protons increases, therefore drawing electrons closer together and making the atomic size decrease.
Next, lets discuss first ionization energy.
First ionization energy is the amount of energy that is needed to take off an electron from the atom. The easier it is to take off an electron the smaller the first ionization energy is. Therefore, atoms that are larger will have lower ionization energy since outer shell electrons are further away from the nucleus.The trend for the first ionization energy is that it increases up the group and from the left to the right.
Electronegativity is the scale of how much attraction an atom has for electrons in a bond. Electronegativity has the same trend as the first ionization energy. It increases up the group and from the left to the right.
Electronegativity trend does not include the noble gases, group 18. The most electronegative element on the periodic table is Fluorine.
Transformation Tutoring is ready to help you with any chemistry needs. Our incredible chemistry tutors work in Brooklyn, NYC and online. Please call 646-407-9078 for more information about scheduling a chemistry tutoring session today.