Insulin is a very important hormone that helps regulate our blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. It is originally synthesized as preproinsulin, a precursor to the insulin. It then is chemically modified to become proinsulin, and finally, insulin.
The secretion of insulin from the pancreatic cells is triggered by the presence of glucose. Thus, eating a meal , and releasing glucose triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas. Once it is released, insulin travels through the bloodstream and binds to the receptors on the target organs. The binding of insulin leads to a catalytic cascade that results in the translocation of glucose transporters to the cell surface, and their ability to uptake glucose. Therefore, once a meal is eaten, increased glucose levels in blood lead to the release of insulin which eventually causes glucose to be absorbed by the adipose and sketeal tissue cells.
Furthermore, insulin leads to glycogen synthesis (stores glucose) and protein synthesis. Deficiency in insulin or inability to produce it leads to dangerous leases such as diabetes. Diabetes 1 is the result of insulin deficiency due to the destruction of beta pancreatic cells. It is controlled with healthy eating, exercises as well as blood sugar monitoring and taking insulin.
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