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Which statement is an accurate description of genes?

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Which statement is an accurate description of genes?

  1. Proteins are made of genes and code for DNA.

  2. Genes are made of proteins that code for nitrogen bases.

  3. DNA is made of carbohydrates that code for genes.

  4. Genes are made of DNA and code for proteins.

Answer and explanation:

Most of our cells contain nucleus, one of the most important organelles. Nucleus contains DNA, the genetic information responsible for telling the body how to develop, grow, and reproduce. DNA is double stranded and made of nucleic acids (each nucleic acid contains sugar, phosphate group, and a base). Therefore, choice 3 is wrong. DNA serves as a template of instructions on how to make proteins. Genes are made from DNA and serve as a functional units of heredity. Thus, one gene can code for your eye color, while another codes for your hair texture etc.

Therefore, choice 4 is the correct choice: genes are made of DNA and code for proteins.

P.S. How are proteins made?

DNA is used as a template to make RNA in a process called transcription. RNA is single stranded and has the base U instead of T. Once RNA is modified, it leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. In cytoplasm, mRNA together with tRNA and ribosomes does the process of translation, or creation of proteins. tRNA reads the codon (3letter sequence) on mRNA and bring the correct amino acid to the correct codon. Thus, a protein gets built from the correct amino acid sequence. Proteins can undergo further modifications in endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus, where they are sorted and sent to their ultimate locations.

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