Chapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones
Table of Contents:
Structure and Bonding
Find the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the aldehyde and number from the carbon with the aldehyde group
End the name in "al"
Find the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the ketone group and number from the carbon closest to the ketone functional group.
End the name in "one" and specify the number of the carbon to which =O is attached.
Due to the =O, aldehydes and ketones are polar molecules. The carbon with =O is a Lewis acid (can be attacked) and the O is the lewis base (can attack).
Carbonyl reactions can happen in acidic and in basic conditions
Addition of Carbon Nucleophiles
1. Addition of Grignard Reagents
Mechanism Of Grignard Addition to the Carbonyls
How to predict the reactants of ketone/aldehyde +RMgBr when product is given?
Break between carbon with OH and its neighboring C
Turn OH into =O and add MgBr (or Li) to the carbon broken off
2. Addition of Anions of Terminal Alkynes
Note: Once alkyne is attached, we can do alkyne reactions on it to produce
3. Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide
The Wittig Reaction
Witting reaction converts carbonyls (ketones or aldehydes ) into alkenes (C=C).