Chapter 18: Functional Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids
Table of Contents:
Acidity of Amides, Imides, and Sulfonamides
Under basic conditions, the nucleophile attacks the carbonyl carbon pushing electrons up to the oxygen. Under acidic conditions, oxygen first gets protonated which is followed by the nucleophile attack.
Reactions With Water: Hydrolysis
Acid Chloride or Anhydride with H2O = Carboxylic Acid
Hydrolysis of Esters
Esters can be converted into carboxylic acids under acidic or basic conditions.
Hydrolysis of Amides