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What types of intermolecular forces would you expect to find in CHCl3?

13. What types of intermolecular forces would you expect to find in CHCl3?

a. dispersion

b. dipole-dipole

c. hydrogen bonding

d. a&b

e. all of the above


Explanation: Intermolecular forces are forces between molecules (I think of them as the forces of attraction but they don't have to be). Let's go over different intermolecular forces.


1. ION-ION


This is the strongest intermolecular force. It is present in all ionic compounds. To recognize it, look at the formula and see if it has metal with a nonmetal, or metal with polyatomic ion.


2. HYDROGEN BONDING


Even though there is a word bonding in its name, it is still a force and not a bond. Hydrogen bonding is present in molecules that have OH, NH or FH. It is the strongest type of dipole-dipole force, and is usually written separately.


3. DIPOLE-DIPOLE


This type of force is present in polar molecules.


4. DISPERSION (also known as Van Der Waals Forces)


This type of force is present in all substances. However, nonpolar molecules have ONLY dispersion force while others have dispersion force and other forces.


It is also important to note that dispersion force is the weakest force. The strength of dispersion forces is connected to the molar mass. The higher the molar mass, the stronger the dispersion force will be.


For example: H2 should have weaker dispersion forces than Cl2 since it has lower molar mass.


Let's take a look at CH3Cl. This molecule is not symmetrical and is therefore polar. It does not have OH, NH or FH so it can not have hydrogen bonding, eliminating choice C. Since it is polar it must have dipole-dipole forces and all molecules have dispersion forces. Choice d is correct


Answer: D

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