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Chapter 1: Covalent Bonding And Shapes Of Molecules

In chapter 1 outline of the Organic Chemistry textbook (William H. Brown , Brent L. Iverson, Eric Anslyn) , we go over general chemistry topics that are relevant to the organic chemistry such as Lewis dot structures, formal charges, shapes, polar versus non polar molecules and bonds. We also learn about hybridization and molecular orbital theory.

Chapter 1: Covalent Bonding And Shapes Of Molecules

1.1 Electronic Structure of Atoms 

1.2 Lewis Model of Bonding

1.3 Functional Groups
1.4 Bond Angles and Shapes of Molecules
1.5 Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
1.6 Quantum or Wave Mechanics
1.7 A Combined Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theory Approach to Covalent Bonding

1.8 Resonance

1.9 Molecular Orbitals for Delocalized Systems
1.10 Bond Lengths and Bond Strengths in Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes

Chapter 1 Mayya's Guide: Outline, Notes, Tricks, Tips, And Solved Problems

TIP: To set up Periodic Table for electron configuration, divide it into S, P, D, AND F blocks as shown in the picture. Move He box to be next to H. Number rows 1 through 7 on the left and on the right. For block D, number 1 less so 3,4,5,6.

Next Up: Orbital Energy Diagram

Mayya's Tip:

  1. Calculate the total number of valence electrons in a molecule (group number = number of valence electrons)

  2. Draw our your molecule and put lines between atoms (bonds)

  3. Subtract electrons used in bonds (2 electrons per bond) from the total number of valence electrons

  4. Use the remaining electrons to make outer atoms happy (octet). Keep in mind hydrogen only wants 2 electrons

  5. If there are any electrons left, place them on the central atom.

  6. Check if everyone is happy(octet). If not use double and triple bonds.

Formal Charge = number of valence electrons - (number of bonds + number of lone electrons)

Rules for writing Resonance Structures:

  1. Do not give hydrogen more than 2 electrons and do not give second period elements more than 8 electrons

  2. They only things you are allowed to move are electrons

Draw three contributing structures of the following amide and state the hybridization of the highlighted O, C, and N. In which orbitals do the three lone pairs drawn reside?

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